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Friday, July 27, 2007

Insecuring Cultures - II

Robin Hibu, DCP West Delhi, security tips booklet that was particularly prepared for the progressive population of North East in Delhi severely ired the targeted group. The booklet is seen as an ignorance of the treasured culture and identity of the diverse North East people with blind unfounded accusation that seeps out of imagined notions. The booklet cannot be ignored as a threat as the population have been continuously disturbed with their experienced of the wrath of unquestioned imagined notions fixed upon them. It would be a mistake to merely ignore the booklet as an “elder brother’s advice”, when the population from the region are, if not silently then helplessly, negotiating and braving the “discrimination”, “alienation”, and “racial profiling” that was imposed on them. Even though it was not intended, the booklet reflects the underlying worms that remain untouched. The Delhi Police security tips booklet is seen as an attempt to deliberately exert unnecessary pressure to undermined and deprived the living strength of the progressive population from the region who are also silently negotiating and battling the varied differences in the Capital city, which is new to them. The “information booklet”, which Robin Hibu said was intended as “an elder brother’s advice” has ired the targeted group even as the author said, “I was not trying to interfere in their lives.” The booklet with its strong negative introduction, where the boys from the region are unsparingly portrayed as “drug addict” frequenting in “drunken brawl” and girls of North East with ever “revealing dress” “molested and thrown out of the moving vehicle”, missed the reality and the envied ladder of the progressive population who are, otherwise, carving significant place in diverse avenues in the Capital city. While the exaggerations are not convincing, the sight from the rusted steel frame does not seem to appear any greener.

Despite the “good intention” behind the booklet, it has acted like salt to fresh wounds as the people from the North East negotiate with the inevitable differences attached to the cultural diversity, which is worsened by the different features that the people from the region bear. If one recalls the year, 2005, when a girl from the North-East was raped in Delhi, the Vice Principal of Kirori Mal College, University of Delhi boldly said that there should be a separate dress code for North East students, particularly girls. According to sources, many pubs and discotheques in the capital city are closing their doors to people of the North East, which was usually done by judging the features and colours that the people carry. Besides that the endless restrictions imposed upon their food habits and lifestyle by the landlords, the expectations that were demanded of them and the prejudices that has been attached to them by people outside the region have been raising silent concern on their part. The experience of the people from the North East has been that of a cultural struggle in a clogged space, which the booklet failed to reflect.

In the context of the larger diversity and plurality of the country’s reality, the need for a separate security tips booklet for people from the North East is seen as “unwise and discriminatory” by the acclaimed writer and former diplomat L Keivom. “I sympathise with the intention, but this is not the way to do it,” L Keivom said. He also said that it is not unusual to see a booklet on do’s and don’ts. “The main purpose”, he said. “is to educate and instruct newcomers so that they respect the cultural sensitivities of the people. For example, there is a very useful booklet on Saudi Arabia, which gives basic norms on how to behave while in the country so that one does not unwittingly offend the cultural sensitivities of the people. But the booklet is universal and not targeted for any particular people or region. It is also applicable to all Arab inhabited regions. But the booklet in question is not only an insult to the targeted people and the region but also to the basic intelligence of those who have thought it necessary to issue such patronistic piece of advice.” L Keivom also adds: “It is prerogative of any administration to issue advice on any subject within the bounds of their jurisdiction and purview. But some of the contents of the booklet in question are vicious, misdirected, insulting and discriminatory. It should be condemned by all.”

Moses Kharbithai, a JNU research scholar and convenor of Forum for People’s Rights personally felt that the spirit in which the booklet has been written in which North East girls are unfoundedly accused of returning “as drug addict”, boys caught in “drunken brawl” and girls with “revealing dressed up” for which she is her own reason for being “molested and thrown out of the moving vehicle” shows how the so-called “mainstream people” have justified themselves whenever people from the North East are victimised in the Capital city. Moses said, “Such ethnic profiling should be condemned in the strongest term by all the students’ community and the public. Such booklet I don’t think is a security booklet at all, but a dangerous assumption that will only make us more vulnerable to the uncontrollable crimes in the city. If it was intended for the security of the North East students, such booklet should have rather been addressed and distributed to auto and taxi drivers, landlords, property dealers, etc., warning them against discrimination to any North East student who might be facing language and cultural barriers in Delhi.” Moses added that if such booklet is at all required it should be brought with full consultation and unanimous support of the elders in the most unsegregated manner.

Moses also said that food habit to a great extent defines culture. “Dictates on food habit is a dictate on culture”, Moses added. “This is very imperial in approach. If Delhi Police want us to inculturate, they should simultaneously encourage the people of Delhi to acculturate”, Moses said. He also felt that the booklet is one of the most racial and discriminating booklets ever distributed in the pretext of security. “It is a shame for the police of a Capital city to act so unprofessional on such sensitive issues”, Moses said.

Lalparmawi Varte, a lecturer, said: “We are not from Mars to require a separate security handbook. I am not sure with the intention of the Delhi Police with the booklet, but with all due respect I think they have forgotten that we are living in a democratic country.” She also opined that it would rather help if the Delhi police could invest their time in doing more productive work than indulging in further deteriorating the rift between people from the North East and the mainland Indians. Lalparmawi said, “The booklet will do more harm than good. It would rather subject us to a feeling of hurt and further alienation which we are already facing in the Capital city.”

Zuchamo Yanthan, a lecturer in IGNOU, said that the intention of the writer may be positive, but, “unfortunately, the booklet is reflecting a very poor understanding of the writer on the young generation of the North East. Almost 80 per cent of the guidelines are irrelevant to the young generation. The people of this generation are intelligent and smart enough to adapt with the changing times much better than anyone else.” Zuchamo felt that differences should be respected and everyone should strive to accommodate one another. K Yhome, Associate Fellow in Observer Research Foundation, said that there are huge differences between the two worlds and therefore a few tips would be good if not necessary. But Yhome opines that food habits and dress culture are sensitive issues and need to be seen in the context of individual rights. He also said that in dressing matter, “the debate here is around responding to the sensibility of the local people. There are two dimensions to this issue- insider or the locals and the migrants or outsiders. The best way to understand this proposition is to see oneself as a local.” Yhome felt that there are other ways to deal with these issues, rather than issuing a booklet. “One way of doing it is to inform through community meetings and social gatherings. I think such approach would carry more weight and avoid the risk of running into a controversy as the current one is embroiled in”, Yhome said.

Alana Golmei, a research scholar, said that people from the North East are not different human beings to be singled out and impose with strict rules. “The booklet is to defame and discriminate the indigenous people of the North Eastern region”, Alana said.

L Keivom strongly felt the need to understand the multi-cultural context of the country. He believed that the mingling and blending of all the diverse cultures would slowly but surely form a beautiful mainstream, but that the process would take a long time. “We are a nation of 60 years young only and the process of integration is progressing well due not only to what we have been doing but also to external and other factors too”, Keivom said. He also adds: “The booklet in question is an evil distraction and will not help our national integration.” Keivom also believed that education and social integration would only bridge the big gap of ignorance and understanding that is missing in the face of India’s reality of plurality and diversity. “The people of North East India understand the people outside the region much more than the people outside their region understand them. This cultural as well as psychological gap is born out of ignorance and lack of close contacts. It took me 20 years to accept and enjoy the taste of chapatti and masala-based preparations, but my preference as well as of my children living in different parts of the world is always our home food that originates from the North East. Sense of smell is perhaps a genetically ingrained sense which has been passed on from generation to generation”, Keivom said. He also said that the people of North East India are blessed with various sense of smell and taste, which he said, “Delhi should respect.” Keivom also adds: “Delhi should also know that racially and culturally the people of North East India are our bridge with the rest of Asia.” B Lalzarliana, president of Mizo Zirlai Pawl said: “To bridge the gap, an endeavour from both sides should be made to understand and know more about the other. Lack of knowledge about others helps creates lots of misconception and stereotyping. To avoid this, more social and cultural intercourse is needed.”

Moses Kharbithai also opines that for the rest of India to understand North East culture, food habits and way of life, “The writings on North East should find more space in the Indian school text books so that the new generation would learn more from our rich culture, history, tradition and our democratic values.” Moses also said that people of North East are the most honest and sincere people in India. “However, for one reason, the booklet has made us realize that our political leaders are extremely irresponsible and helpless not to have reacted in the interest of the people they represent. Not even a single MP from the region has come forward till today to condemn such controversial booklet on the floor of Parliament”, Moses said.

While Lalparmawi Varte believed that the booklet, with its racial profiling, is merely a waste of time and effort, K Yhome opines, “It is a humble attempt to make people aware of celebrating difference. It was done with a good intention but everything in it should not be taken seriously. It need to be seen as a guideline from an experienced person and does not in any way impose rules on anyone.” Grace Don Nemching, president of Siamsinpawlpi and a lecturer in Jesus and Mary College felt that the booklet has many good points, “which is why it should not be limited to only North East students but also to other students from other parts of the country who come to study in Delhi. The booklet, i feel, is regionally biased which should not have been because it is not only northeast students who face security problems but other students as well.”

Moses Kharbithai, on the other hand, felt that the booklet has become an instrument for more discrimination. “In its present form”, L Keivom said, “It will invite only anger. It provokes a clash of civilisations. I do not doubt the sincerity of purpose of those who issued the booklet. But you do not win people by insulting them.” L Keivom also feels that if the administration is really keen to deliver such messages, “they should better contact the heads of various community, church and student organisations, brief them and appeal to them to convey their concern to their respective members. It will work.” He also said that Delhi as India’s Capital city does not belong to any particular community. It is also the seat of representation of all countries in the world. “Delhi should be treated as it should be and not as a colony of a particular community”, Keivom said. He also adds: “The booklet will not serve its well intended purpose. It is a mistake, a cultural breach and the product of a misguided enthusiasm.”

As the booklet written with “good intention” stirs concern, it raised the need for a constructive debate and discourse on the underlying but disturbing prejudices that have been associated with the people of the North East. The imagined notions percepted by people outside the region are in the process of getting unquestionably fixed. While there is a challenging role for education, the issue hinges on a larger cultural context, which should be discussed and debated to secure the unity in the midst of diversity. Otherwise, people of the North East would continue to appear to be the “strange tribe.”

Friday, July 20, 2007

Insecuring Cultures

The security tips booklet written by Robin Hibu, West Delhi Deputy Commissioner of Police, with overflowing good intentions, particularly for the North-East students and visitors from the region raised serious questions. In most compartments where the “strange tribe” are, there is strong resentment and boiling anger. One wonders if the same booklet was also made for the equally multiplying population from South India or for that matter for others from the rest of India. If not, it truly deserves a serious discourse and debate on culture, race, difference, accommodation, understanding and what not, which must have compelled the need for the booklet. In the absence of that necessary, the booklet is more a talibanisation effort than the celebrated democratic one, despite the good intentions. The history of good intentions is not a beautiful one. Jesus Christ was hanged because of his good and loving intentions to save the world. That was when the “concert for democracy” was far from coming of age. However, it ought to be different today in the context of the proud populous democracy in India’s capital city. Or is that just a farce mask? Or is the population so big that it looks democracy-like without exhibiting the true principles of democracy? A make-believe unseen glitz to please George Bush. If it is, it won’t be far from a mosque full of terrorist. Is India’s democracy housing Talibans? The booklet is far from drawing applause in the background of unhealthy prejudices and the ever-growing gap of differences and discriminations.

The tips are stressed with strong and authoritative restrictions: what to do and what not to do in the sea of unacknowledged plurality and diversity. I don’t know if we are diluting the purity of national food, if there is any, with the smell of our unique foods. I also don’t know if the dressing sense of our girls is leading the unholy mainstream Indians into that sinful fantasy. But I doubt. The deteriorating and degenerating cosmopolitan is not negotiating merely on what smell should be allowed and what should not be. It is much destructive than that.

The People from the North-East cannot be blamed for the hardened prejudices that have been attached to our existence. It is unfortunate that we are a prey to that prejudices. But it is obvious. It seems to be restrictive at times, but it is also dominantly revealing. This prejudices, if correctly understood, is unnecessarily framed by the set of issues that relates to the context of India’s diversity and plurality and the ignorance that follows. On the part of the people from the so-called “mainstream”, who bear and breeds the prejudices, there has been a big failure on their part. This failure can be translated to their failure to understand the diversity of India, its people, culture, tradition, language, dress, taste, smell, etc. In their failure to confront the reality of our continuous existence, they were cornered to adopt a hardened and fixed picture and character of the people from North East that actually digress from the reality of the population who belongs to the region. That point of digression is the point where prejudices begin.

The picture and image imagined by the mainstream and extreme Indians also never seem to include the visage, structure and colour of the North-East people. Our food, smell, flavour, dressing sense and taste, no doubt, remain a mystery or junglee, if not strange. The image which people from the North bears, then, stands out to question the picture of the “Indian” they have been imagining. The image of the people from the North East actually shifts away from that imagination by the man from the mainland. He, then, started raising too many questions, which is draped and wrapped by his ignorance, understanding, and reason. But does ignorance have to be racist or discriminating?

Our claim to be Indian is a surprise statement for their acceptance, despite the imposition through the unholy union. We still are not yet melted. They still could not smelt us too. This difference has created a big wall of indifference. And when the racial difference is followed by differences in our culture, approach, inclinations, etc, whatever we do become strange, surprising, different and many a times unacceptable to their pattern of standard they have narrowly fixed. This could be exploited by anyone who blindly talked about assimilation to please their higher ups in the rusted colonial hierarchical structure. However, such exploitation act as the breeding ground for enhancing the existing prejudices that has already brayed with racist tones. Do we necessarily need to fit into their ears, eyes, nose and senses to be counted as one or equal?

In the year, 2005, a girl from North-East was raped in Delhi. The next day, the Vice Principal of Kirori Mal College, University of Delhi boldly said that there should be a dress code for North East students, particularly girls. How do we define such prejudices today? How do we justify their categorisation? Shall we say it is a regional discrimination? Or a little harsher and say it is racial. Today many of Delhi’s pubs and discos, I was told by those who have experienced, call them ‘victims’, would not admit or allow people from the North East. They did that by judging the colour of our skin and looks. Now we cannot just call that a regional discrimination. Rather, it about this overblown prejudices that is getting uncontrollably bigger. I must say again that our space is getting clogged. It has pricked our tolerance, reason and conscience, which is not fair or acceptable. We are not to be blamed. There is no denying that from our experience as a people in the mainland India, there is always a tendency, if not to belittle, then to dehumanise us.

The inclusion of tips for not cooking our beloved food in a security tips booklet will remain an ignorance of what security is all about. For that matter I don’t know what becomes insecure with our food and smell. Changing our food habits and dressing culture would not improve our relationship with the so-called mainstream Indians. It would not change anything either. If we have to change, they will also have to change their clogged mindset and vacate their sink of traditional prejudices. That will also have to affect the curriculum and syllabus in schools and universities. Otherwise, if the ignorance persists, let us doggedly continue to educate them with our presence, colour, dressing sense, tastes and smell. The new generations should rather find ways for marketing and patenting the unique smell. Look East for that. The grass is green there. At the same time, besides the need for mentioning the neglected North East in the national anthem, the good officer(s) should immediately train and educate it’s boys (Delhi Police) about the diversity and plurality of India without forgetting the North East too. If the capital city could not appetite or tolerate the smell, sights and presence of us, the institution that published the booklet should better propose to the HRD Minister to restructure education by keeping North East also in mind. Understanding and acceptance should be accompanied by understanding and accepting our food habits, dressing sense, besides our identity and culture. Any culture or identity is defined by smell, taste and colour. There is a need to acknowledge and accept us by understanding our culture and not through their culture. Otherwise, whatever the intentions, it would remain an indifferent tips that would not bridge the inevitable gap. But a small tips to the eight sisters and the rest of Indians: dress comfortably and eat healthily, while you uphold your identity and integrity.

Friday, July 13, 2007

Slinging Contradictions

In a recent conference on “State Violence and Women: Survivors, Defenders and Leaders”, organised by The Other Media in Delhi, various women’s organisation from the disturbed areas of North East as well as Jammu and Kashmir expressed shared concern on the growing militarisation that impacted women miserably. Human rights violations, which is illustrative of the situation in these region, was discussed at length. Demilitarisation was collectively seen as the viable solution to check the excesses of human rights violations.

While the negativities of “acute militarisation” was heavily stressed, followed by uncontested resolution for demilitarisation, there are also growing voices from the same disturbed compartments that demands for militarisation. These voices were hardly raised or represented in the hallowed seminars and conferences. The “disturbed areas” has stirred a more disturbing situation where representations on the various issues that it confronts failed to be collective. Meanwhile, Defence Minister’s firm stand on having no immediate intention to repeal AFSPA would enhance the tone of these ex-pressions to gain conflicting momentum. The persisting realities, if it continue with all its negativities would not only involved the state forces as perpetrators, but also the non-state armed actors too. That will become a point where concern for demilitarisation would also be followed by equal concern for militarisation. Manipur stands in the crossroad where the civil societies are cornered to identify which of the necessary evil would suit them. The Leviathan could not help much, but watched the other actors run a parallel government in the growing liberated zones despite the democratic staple of elections with questionable suffrage system. Faced with this, the demand is for demilitarisation as well as militarisation too.

In the early part of 2006, Hmar organisations demands for the presence of security forces and in some it demands for permanent military post in several Tipaimukh villages in Churachandpur, Manipur. Similarly, various Kukis organisations have been continuously demanding for the setting up of permanent military bases at New Samtal and Khengjoi block in Manipur’s Chandel district. Moreover, Mani Charenamei, MP, Outer Manipur, after visiting Moreh on June 20, 2007, met the Home Minister on July 4 and demands for securitisation of Chandel’s Moreh on the lines of the Kuki organisation demands. The MP asked the Home Minister to sent more central security forces to flush out the underground elements from the border areas and set up security camps at New Samtal, Molcham, Gamphajol and Yangonlen. His demands also include permanent stationing of central security force for maintaining law and order in Chandel’s Moreh. Not only that, the MP also demanded for replacing the IRB by the Central Security Forces. The MP said that these demands are of utmost necessity keeping in view the genuine problems of the tribal population of Chandel district in general and the Kuki’s in particular. Not only that after the rape of lactating women at T Phaijol village by militants on July 10, 2007, the Kuki Students’ Organisation immediately demand for establishing an Assam Rifles post at T Phaijol village in Churachandpur. All these voices strongly inclined towards militarisation.

There are many inescapable questions that recently grow from the affected peoples perspectives, which contradicts the otherwise growing movement for demilitarisation. While questioning that “collective representation” becomes inevitable, generalising the North East context would be a mistake, despite the shared draconian law.

Meanwhile, the joint resolution drafted by the group of women on July 8,2007 stated, “We have lost entire generations to the war unleashed by unbridled power given to the security forces…The impact on our lives over decades of militarisation has been particularly acute…We also understand that the state has encouraged non-state actors as a part of its counter insurgency operations leading to further undermining of democratic rights of people.” Their demand also includes for the repeal of AFSPA and all other draconian laws and demilitarisation in Jammu and Kashmir and North Eastern states.

As conflicting voices grows, it is getting complicated to identify the real interest that would represent the people’s interest. Earlier, there were voices for the repeal of AFSPA that was followed by the same not to withdraw the army from Manipur. While the authorities are cornered to find the balancing act suitable for a more humane situation in the face of the growing movements for the repeal of AFSPA, the NGO’s, and people’s representatives are confronted with the challenge of identifying a clear stand beyond the loud assertion that it is championing. The NGO’s cannot afford to sacrifice its credibility by raising voices that goes against the interest of the people. Even though many of the seemingly representative organisations have failed to be representative of the people or the issues, the core interest of the unrepresented people cannot persist. A negotiation with the new development and changing realities has to be made so as to develop new working principles in the interest of the people that it stand to represent. The error would be to see multiplying actors with no relation to the demands and challenges of the grass rooted people.

Representative form overtakes and differentiates from the portrayal. Not only that, the techniques of form also overtakes the representative form. The question is, are we still representing or representative? The growing voices for militarisation cannot be seen as a calculated move to negate the popular movement for demilitarisation. It is not. It is rather a desperate and distressed voice. However, it raises the otherwise realities of the usually unrepresented constituencies that are negotiating the threat of the same militarisation too. What matters to them is the same issue of militarisation and its threat. The actor did not seem to matter much when the threat equally gnaws into all aspects of their life. A hesitation or a softer approach to the relative militarisation would be a botch for any activists who are straining excessively to curb state sponsored militarisation alone. A comparative look at Iraq’s alarming prospect with demilitarisation should also caution anyone to be cautious, as small arms have already flooded the disturbed areas in the North East. A long-term approach has to be whetted out by striking a balance with the peoples interest after weighing the contextual demands and challenges. Otherwise, it would be a confusing war of slinging contradictions.

Saturday, July 7, 2007

The sop

Remember when you were young, you shone like the sun
Now there's a look in your eyes, like black holes in the sky
You were caught on the crossfire of childhood and stardom
You reached for the secret too soon, you cried for the moon
Threatened by shadows at night, and exposed in the light
Well you wore out your welcome with random precision
Come on you raver, you seer of visions
Come on you painter, you piper, you prisoner, and shine!

- (Shine On You Crazy Diamond- Pink Floyd)

The protracted simmer in Manipur has taken great toll on everyone. It affects the largest unconcerned lot. Today, it has multiplied the affected people where the situation has become a compulsion for a more collective concern. Are we living the burnt-out case? Or the blown-out? The situation has extended its arm so wide that even if one is not part of it, it has made one a part of it. A group of students who recently came to Delhi to pursue their studies said that the situation had made the new generations of Manipur “coward, timid and inferior.” The effect that the unabated unrest has on society is an undeniable reality. In the year 2006, the number of teenagers coming to Delhi from Manipur’s Churachandpur alone is quite alarming. Alarming because they did not come to study or work. However their reason for coming was more to escape the unfortunate climate of unrest, instability, violence, and its related threats. Delhi has become a sort of haven for those who could manage to escape. Many parents are just more than happy with the assurance that their children are safe in Delhi. It’s not Delhi alone. Most of India’s cities have become that. Ringo Pebam, a friend from Bangalore, shared about the disturbing way of life of the North East people. While the relative negativity of a city life has become a threat, the definition of “safe” or “safer” has to be widely debated. If not, many of, not only Churachandpur’s youth, but also of Manipur and other Northeast states are confronting degeneration from the edge of the capital city.

Zuchamo Yanthan, a friend from Nagaland, complained, more than often, of his “tiredness” of seeing girls from the North East in the company of blacks. A friend from Pune told me that our girls are “faithful beautiful toys” for the blacks. There is no denying that girls from the region are also doing the same with the ‘vai’ or ‘mayang’ from the rest of India. In some pubs and discos, the number of girls from North East is enough to make one feel at home. But the sight delivers a different picture where one is compelled to question, than bask in the home-likeness din of techno driven music and lightning-like flashes of multi-coloured rays. On the other hand, in the other growing public places in Delhi, girls and boys from the region are not allowed entry. The insult has become more than alarming or disturbing. Boys are not spared either. In many of Delhi’s rehab, boys from the region are not missing. In some places, they not only overpopulate but also rule and lord. Moreover, the growing places of employment have become centres of exploitation too. Girls are more vulnerable. But they are more tolerable. The imposing tag on our girls is defined by “cheap”, and boys are “hip” and prone to “anger and fighting.” These are not to be tossed with a hurrah! That is when the concern gnaws one day and night.

I explained to my friend about the relativity of change, despite the helplessness. Good and bad go together everywhere, I told him. If not they come together. Otherwise, they will still go together. But who are we to deserve and expect all the good things alone? That seems to explain. But I am far from happy to find solace in that explanation. Another friend from Nagaland, Khriezo Yhome, opines that if the present situation of unrest, violence, instability, unemployment, etc., persists in the North East, “Tomorrow, there will be a bigger race to move out of the region.”

The new population movement needs to be explained and understood in the context of the socio, economic and political situation of the region than merely shoving them under the guise of education, job or those beautiful upward mobility explanations. I tend to be optimistic and see the possibility of inter-culture, inter-racial or inter-colour marriage as the future of the new generations, of North East people too. However, that would be a leaping conclusion if the present trend continues. The practice is not going to deliver that “new generation.” The unconscious celebration only reminded me of Pink Floyd’s Shine on You Crazy Diamond. We have stepped into a grave time when father and mother bury sons and daughters. The reasons are an open book that we have not seriously read. The reality is that the changing time is gnawing into us. We have embraced the blind race of exporting our future to destinations far from home in the quest for momentary sigh. We do that at every cost with unquestioned lapse of reason too. Sacrificing our future, moral, values, dignity, integrity, and identity in the grope of that glitzy. How do we bargain? Meanwhile, militarisation is the latest development in the region. Small arms race is getting acute. The population of weakened immune system is soaring. Our rivers are targeted to be tapped. It’s not the school building alone that is burning. We need to find the relation of the growing alarm to convert them for the obligations of our family, society and government. Otherwise this is just the beginning of the sop.